Català Castellano
DEGREE CURRICULUM
BIOCHEMISTRY AND METABOLISM
Coordination:
SANCHIS MORALES, DANIEL
Academic year 2019-20
DEGREE CURRICULUM: BIOCHEMISTRY AND METABOLISM 2019-20

Subject's general information
Subject nameBIOCHEMISTRY AND METABOLISM
Code100600
Semester2nd Q(SEMESTER) CONTINUED EVALUATION
Typology
DegreeCourseCharacterModality
Bachelor's Degree in Human Nutrition and Dietetics1COMMONAttendance-based
Double bachelor's degree: Degree Physiotherapy and Degree in Human Nutrition and Diethetics1COMMONAttendance-based
Course number of credits (ECTS)9
Type of activity, credits, and groups
Activity typePRAULATEORIA
Number of credits4.54.5
Number of groups32
CoordinationSANCHIS MORALES, DANIEL
DepartmentBASIC MEDICAL SCIENCES
Teaching load distribution between lectures and independent student workAll information in the program is in class attendance. The student has to prepare three presentations equipment (seminars metabolism disorders) for which attendance is also intended time (it is up to the student whether used or prepares independently). The autonomous student work focuses ideally in reviewing what is in class for their understanding and final maturation.
LanguageCatalan /Spanish
some material in English
Distribution of creditsMagisterial Classroom Activity 4.9
Practice 1.8
Seminar 2.3
Teaching staffE-mail addressesCredits taught by teacherOffice and hour of attention
DELASPRE , FABIENfdelaspre@cmb.udl.cat4,5
FLEITAS PÉREZ, CATHERINEcatherine.fleitas@cmb.udl.cat4,5
SANCHIS MORALES, DANIELdaniel.sanchis@cmb.udl.cat13,5
Subject's extra information

Bibliography

  1. Berg, J.M. Tymoczko, .L., Stryer, L. (2007) Bioquímica. 6ª ed. Editorial Reverté. (Versió en català i en castellà)
  2. Biesalski, H.K., Grimm, P. (2007) Nutrición. Texto y atlas. Editorial Médica Panamericana. **
  3. Devlin, T.M. (2004) Bioquímica. Editorial Reverté. *
  4. Feduchi, Blasco, Romero, Yáñez. Bioquímica. Conceptos esenciales. Editorial Médica Panamericana.*
  5. Grooper, S.S., Smith, J.L., Groff, J.L. (2009) Advanced nutrition and human metabolism. 5th ed. Wadsworth Cengage Learning editorial.
  6. Mathews, C.K., van Holde, K.E. Ahern, K.G  (2002) Bioquímica. 3ª ed. Editorial Adisson-Wesley.
  7. Müller-Esterl, Werner. Bioquímica. Fundamentos para Medicina y Ciencias de la Vida. Editorial Reverté. *
  8. Mckee, T., Mckee, J.R. (2003) Bioquímica. La base molecular de la vida. 3ª ed. Editorial McGraw Hill.
  9. Voet, D., Voet, J.G., Pratt, C.W. (2007) Fundamentos de Bioquímica. 2ª ed. Editorial Médica Panamericana.

 

web resources:

 

 

BioRom: http://sebbm.bq.ub.es/BioROM/indices/index.html

 

MolviZ.org: http://www.umass.edu/microbio/chime/

Learning objectives

As for knowledge, the student must pass the subject:

1. Know the basic scientific terminology applied to biochemistry.

2. Recognize and classify the most important biomolecules that make up living things.

3. Know the basics of enzymology and regulation of enzyme activity and apply to human nutrition.

4. Recognize the mechanism of energy production from staple foods.

5. Know and differentiate the main routes of metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, nucleotides and its regulation.

6. Integrate different metabolic pathways using compounds and have an overview of metabolism.

7. Distinguish the role of the most important hormones in energy metabolism

8. Know the basic elements of a laboratory of biochemistry and basic to ensure reliability in the results and safety at work in the laboratory guidelines.


In terms of procedure, the student must pass the subject:

1. Understand and discuss basic scientific articles related to the biochemistry of human nutrition.

2. Knowing how to use the basic elements of a biochemistry laboratory.

3. Use spectrophotometric techniques to calculate parameters of metabolic importance

4. Know how to use electrophoretic techniques to separate macromolecules.

5. Analyze and compare the experimental results and assess their importance and limitations.

6. To collect basic information on a topic, prepare a summary and expose their peers.

7. Teamwork in solving problems.

Significant competences

Specifics

Objectives

 

Use and learn the basic language of biochemistry and metabolism especially

 

 

 

Transverse

Activities

Evaluation

Communication and oral and written expression

seminars of metabolic pathologies

seminars exposure with computer support

Subject contents

BIOCHEMISTRY AND METABOLISM


Structural Biochemistry and Enzymology


Item 1. Composition of the living matter. Water and buffer systems

• Constitution of living beings.
• Structure, characteristics and properties of water.
• Biological importance. Distribution in the human body.
• pH concept. Buffers of biological importance.

Item 2. I Biomolecules: Carbohydrates
• General characteristics and classification.
• monosaccharides: structure, properties, derivatives and biological interest.
• Disaccharides. The glycosidic bond. Maltose, cel.lobiosa, lactose and sucrose.
• Oligosaccharides. Structure, properties and biological interest.
• Polysaccharides booking. structure and function of starch and glycogen.
• structural polysaccharides. Cellulose, xylans, glucomannan, chitin.

Item 3. Biomolecules II: lipids
• General characteristics of lipids. Function and classification.
• Fatty acids. physicochemical properties and nomenclature.
• triacylglycerols.
• membrane lipids: glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and cholesterol.
• Other lipids of biological interest: waxes, soaps, eicosanoids and isoprenoid

Item 4. Biomolecules III: proteins
• Structure, nomenclature and properties of amino acids.
• protein primary structure. The peptide bond.
• Secondary structure: helix and beta pleated sheet.
• Concept of tertiary structure. structural motifs and domains. native structure and denaturation.
• Quaternary structure: oligomeric proteins.
• Fibrous proteins: keratins and collagen.
• Globular proteins: myoglobin and hemoglobin.
• Technical study of proteins. Concept proteomic

Item 5. enzymes, enzyme kinetics and regulation
• Introduction to enzyme catalysis: activation energy.
• Nature, nomenclature and classification of enzymes. Concept isoenzyme.
• enzymatic reaction mechanisms: active center concept
• Prosthetic and coenzymes Groups.
• Effect of pH, temperature and ionic strength on the enzyme activity. Quantitative determination of enzyme activity
• Enzyme kinetics. Michaelis-Menten equation. Km and Vmax. Lineweawer-Burk representation.
• irreversible and reversible enzyme inhibition: competitive and noncompetitive.
• regulation of enzyme activity: covalent and al.lostérica.

Item 6. Vitamins and micronutrients
• Concept of vitamin and micronutrient.
• Fat-soluble vitamins.
• Water-soluble vitamins
• Micronutrients.

Bioenergetics and Metabolism

Item 7. Introduction to bioenergetics
• concept of metabolism and metabolic pathway
• Free energy. Standard free energy change
• endergonic and exergonic reactions
Coupled reactions •
• Role of ATP
• oxidation-reduction concept
• Main mechanisms of metabolic regulation

Item 8. central routes of oxidative metabolism
• concept of metabolism and metabolic pathway
• Formation of acetyl-CoA: pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.
• citric acid cycle and regulation.
• Anaplerotic reactions
• Anabolic Role of the citric acid cycle

Item 9. Electronic transport and oxidative phosphorylation
• electron transport chain: stages and inhibitors.
• Hypothesis Chemiosmotic Mitchell
• The enzyme ATP synthase
• Launchers. ATP-ADP translocase.
• Energy efficiency
• Decoupling. thermogenesis
• generation of toxic oxygen radicals. physiological importance.

Item 10. glucose metabolism
• Glucolisis: stages, regulation and energy balance. physiological importance.
• Incorporation of other carbohydrates in the glycolytic pathway: galactose and fructose.
• metabolic fates of pyruvate
• anaerobic glycolysis: lactic fermentation.
• glycogen metabolism. Regulation.
• Gluconeogenesis: precursors, stages and regulation.
• Blood glucose monitoring: importance of different organs and tissues
• Via pentose phosphate: steps and regulation. physiological importance.

Item 11. Lipid metabolism
• Oxidation of (beta-oxidation) fatty acids. energy efficiency and regulation.
• Ketones. Origin and regulation. physiological importance.
• Biosynthesis of fatty acids and triglycerides.
• Cholesterol: biosynthesis and regulation.
• Degradation of cholesterol. Acids and bile salts.
• plasma lipoproteins: structure and function.

Item 12. Metabolism of amino acids and proteins
• protein catabolism. protein turnover.
• catabolism of amino acids: transamination and oxidative deamination.
• Urea cycle.
• Destination carbon skeleton of amino acids.
• ammonium metabolism.
• amino acid biosynthesis. Amino acids essential and nonessential.
• compounds Biosynthesis of amino acid derivatives.

Item 13. Metabolism of nucleotides
• Biosynthesis and pyrimidine nucleotides purínics. De novo synthesis and recovery mechanisms.
• Degradation and pyrimidine nucleotides purínics
• Biosynthesis deoxyribonucleotides

 

 

Methodology

KEYNOTE SESSIONS

49 Theoretical sessions of approximately 50 minutes where the teacher presents the theme, aided by computer equipment (presentations * * power- point, web pages, etc). These sessions aim to introduce the different topics in students, guide them in their assimilation, highlighting the most important points and facilitate integration globally. It is expected that during classes and encouraged by the teacher, the student contribution and contribute prior knowledge (prior to the completion of the course and prior agenda) and a dialogue to facilitate the teaching of the agenda is established. It is an important part of the course where teachers can go following the progress of the students individually, assessing interest, assistance and spontaneous moments of dialogue or intervention.


LAB PRACTICES


Practice 1. Colorimetric determination of proteins
Determination of total serum protein concentration by colorimetric techniques. Biuret method. Performing a standard curve with bovine serum albumin.

Practice 2. Electrophoretic separation of proteins:
Milk protein separation by electrophoresis with SDS. Coomassie blue staining. Comparison and discussion of results

3. Practice enzyme activity assay
Study of alcohol dehydrogenase activity. Catalyzes reaction and quantification strategies activity. Calculation of enzyme activity and specific activity. Determination of the constants Km and apparent Vmax.

Practice 4. Determination of ethanol in beverages
As the content of ethanol by spectrophotometric techniques in wine and beer. Test coupling of two reactions: alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. Determination of the concentration of ethanol from the measurement of NADH formed.

5. Practice Study of iron metabolism
Hematocrit determination
Determination of total iron from human serum
Comparison and discussion of results

6. Test practice glucose tolerance
Measurement of fasting glucose with glucose meter.
Determination of blood glucose curve postabsorptive after ingestion of 75 g glucose solution or an equivalent amount in bread
Comparison and discussion of results

7. Practice Triacilgliceridèmia and cholesterolemia
Determination of cholesterol and triglycerides by spectrophotometric techniques
Determination of total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol
Comparison and discussion of results


SEMINARS


Structure of carbohydrates and lipids: Work in the computer room to assimilate various concepts of structure of carbohydrates and lipids seen in theory. (2h)

Protein Structure: Work in the computer room to assimilate various concepts of protein structure seen in a theory. (2h)

Troubleshooting enzymology: practical exercises to facilitate the assimilation of theoretical concepts of enzyme kinetics. (2h)

Apoptosis: programmed cell death concepts to present how the enzyme activity involved in the regulation of other biological fenímenos not directly related to metabolism. (1 hour)

Pathologies arising from alterations in metabolism:

Students prepare in small groups (3-5 people) a presentation that integrates the knowledge acquired on aspects of metabolism and diseases resulting from alterations in metabolism, with the guidance and support of the teacher if they consider it. Then they expose their presentation in front of the class, in about 15-20 minutes. It gives time teaching hours of the subject and teacher support for the preparation and presentation of seminars.

    Pathologies arising from alterations in the metabolism of micronutrients
    Pathologies arising from alterations in carbohydrate metabolism
    Pathologies derived from alterations in lipid metabolism.

(There is available to students a guidance document for the preparation of proposals including seminars and advice to make this work)

Evaluation
Bibliography

Bibliography

  1. Berg, J.M. Tymoczko, .L., Stryer, L. (2007) Bioquímica. 6ª ed. Editorial Reverté. (Versió en català i en castellà)
  2. Biesalski, H.K., Grimm, P. (2007) Nutrición. Texto y atlas. Editorial Médica Panamericana. **
  3. Devlin, T.M. (2004) Bioquímica. Editorial Reverté. *
  4. Feduchi, Blasco, Romero, Yáñez. Bioquímica. Conceptos esenciales. Editorial Médica Panamericana.*
  5. Grooper, S.S., Smith, J.L., Groff, J.L. (2009) Advanced nutrition and human metabolism. 5th ed. Wadsworth Cengage Learning editorial.
  6. Mathews, C.K., van Holde, K.E. Ahern, K.G  (2002) Bioquímica. 3ª ed. Editorial Adisson-Wesley.
  7. Müller-Esterl, Werner. Bioquímica. Fundamentos para Medicina y Ciencias de la Vida. Editorial Reverté. *
  8. Mckee, T., Mckee, J.R. (2003) Bioquímica. La base molecular de la vida. 3ª ed. Editorial McGraw Hill.
  9. Voet, D., Voet, J.G., Pratt, C.W. (2007) Fundamentos de Bioquímica. 2ª ed. Editorial Médica Panamericana.

Web resources:

BioRom: http://sebbm.bq.ub.es/BioROM/indices/index.html

MolviZ.org: http://www.umass.edu/microbio/chime/

 

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